Hodge brought Cambridge into the international mainstream in the s. Although diversified in its research and teaching interests, Cambridge today maintains its strength in mathematics. Cambridge alumni have won six Fields Medals and one Abel Prize for mathematics, while individuals representing Cambridge have won four Fields Medals. After the Cambridge University Act formalised the organizational structure of the university, the study of many new subjects was introduced, such as theology, history and modern languages.
The University of Cambridge began to award PhD degrees in the first third of the 20th century. The first Cambridge PhD in mathematics was awarded in In the First World War , 13, members of the university served and 2, were killed. Teaching, and the fees it earned, came almost to a stop and severe financial difficulties followed.
As a consequence the university first received systematic state support in , and a Royal Commission appointed in recommended that the university but not the colleges should receive an annual grant.
University of Cambridge
The university was one of only two universities to hold parliamentary seats in the Parliament of England and was later one of eight represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The constituency was created by a Royal Charter of and returned two members of parliament until , when it was abolished by the Representation of the People Act The constituency was not a geographical area.
Its electorate consisted of the graduates of the university. Before the franchise was restricted to male graduates with a doctorate or MA degree. For many years only male students were enrolled into the university. The first women students were examined in but attempts to make women full members of the university did not succeed until From women were awarded diplomas which "conferred the Title of the Degree of Bachelor of Arts".
As they were not "admitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Arts" they were excluded from the governing of the university. Since students must belong to a college, and since established colleges remained closed to women, women found admissions restricted to colleges established only for women. Darwin College, the first wholly graduate college of the university, matriculated both men and women students from its inception in — and elected a mixed fellowship. Of the undergraduate colleges, starting with Churchill, Clare and King's Colleges, the former men's colleges began to admit women between and One of the female-only colleges, Girton, also began to admit male students from , but the other female-only colleges did not do likewise.
As an institution with such a long history, the university has developed a large number of myths and legends. The vast majority of these are untrue, but have been propagated nonetheless by generations of students and tour guides. A discontinued tradition is that of the wooden spoon , the 'prize' awarded to the student with the lowest passing honours grade in the final examinations of the Mathematical Tripos.
It was over one metre in length and had an oar blade for a handle. Since , examination results have been published alphabetically within class rather than in strict order of merit. This made it harder to ascertain who was "entitled" to the spoon unless there was only one person in the third class , and so the practice was abandoned.
The radio broadcast has been a national Christmas tradition since it was first transmitted in though the festival has existed since The first television broadcast of the festival was in Queens' College contains "some of the earliest patterned brickwork in the country"  and the brick walls of St John's College provide examples of English bond , Flemish bond and Running bond. The university is divided into several sites where the different departments are placed.
The main ones are: The university's School of Clinical Medicine is based in Addenbrooke's Hospital where students in medicine undergo their three-year clinical placement period after obtaining their BA degree,  while the West Cambridge site is undergoing a major expansion and will host a new sports development.
Given that the sites are in relative close proximity to each other and the area around Cambridge is reasonably flat, one of the favourite modes of transport for students is the bicycle: The relationship between the university and the city has not always been positive. The phrase town and gown is employed to differentiate inhabitants of Cambridge from students at the university, who historically wore academical dress.
There are many stories of ferocious rivalry between the two categories: Following these events, the Chancellor was given special powers allowing him to prosecute the criminals and re-establish order in the city. Attempts to reconcile the two groups followed over time, and in the 16th century agreements were signed to improve the quality of streets and student accommodation around the city.
However, this was followed by new confrontations when the plague hit Cambridge in and colleges refused to help those affected by the disease by locking their sites. Nowadays, these conflicts have somewhat subsided and the university has become an opportunity for employment among the population, providing an increased level of wealth in the area. Cambridge is a collegiate university , meaning that it is made up of self-governing and independent colleges, each with its own property and income.
Most colleges bring together academics and students from a broad range of disciplines, and within each faculty, school or department within the university, academics from many different colleges will be found.
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The faculties are responsible for ensuring that lectures are given, arranging seminars, performing research and determining the syllabi for teaching, overseen by the General Board. Together with the central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor , they make up the entire Cambridge University. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: The colleges are self-governing institutions with their own endowments and property, founded as integral parts of the university.
All students and most academics are attached to a college. Their importance lies in the housing, welfare, social functions, and undergraduate teaching they provide. All faculties, departments, research centres, and laboratories belong to the university, which arranges lectures and awards degrees, but undergraduates receive their supervisions—small-group teaching sessions, often with just one student—within the colleges though in many cases students go to other colleges for supervision if the teaching fellows at their college do not specialise in the areas concerned.
Each college appoints its own teaching staff and fellows , who are also members of a university department.
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The colleges also decide which undergraduates to admit to the university, in accordance with university regulations. Cambridge has 31 colleges, of which three, Murray Edwards , Newnham and Lucy Cavendish , admit women only.
The other colleges are mixed , though most were originally all-male. Darwin was the first college to admit both men and women, while Churchill , Clare, and King's were the first previously all-male colleges to admit female undergraduates, in Magdalene became the last all-male college to accept women, in All other colleges admit both undergraduate and postgraduate students with no age restrictions.
Colleges are not required to admit students in all subjects, with some colleges choosing not to offer subjects such as architecture, history of art or theology, but most offer close to the complete range. Some colleges maintain a bias towards certain subjects, for example with Churchill leaning towards the sciences and engineering,  while others such as St Catharine's aim for a balanced intake.
Costs to students accommodation and food prices vary considerably from college to college. There are also several theological colleges in Cambridge, separate from Cambridge University, including Westcott House , Westminster College and Ridley Hall Theological College , that are, to a lesser degree, affiliated to the university and are members of the Cambridge Theological Federation.
The 31 colleges are: In addition to the 31 colleges, the university is made up of over departments, faculties, schools, syndicates and other institutions. The university also has a centre for part-time study, the Institute of Continuing Education , which is housed Madingley Hall , a 16th-century manor house in Cambridgeshire. A "School" in the University of Cambridge is a broad administrative grouping of related faculties and other units. Each has an elected supervisory body—the "Council" of the school—comprising representatives of the constituent bodies. There are six schools: Teaching and research in Cambridge is organised by faculties.
The faculties have different organisational sub-structures which partly reflect their history and partly their operational needs, which may include a number of departments and other institutions. In addition, a small number of bodies called 'Syndicates' have responsibilities for teaching and research, e. The office of Chancellor of the university, for which there are no term limits, is mainly ceremonial and is held by David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville , following the retirement of the Duke of Edinburgh on his 90th birthday in June Lord Sainsbury was nominated by the official Nomination Board to succeed him,  and Abdul Arain, owner of a local grocery store, Brian Blessed and Michael Mansfield were also nominated.
The current Vice-Chancellor is Stephen Toope. The university's internal governance is carried out almost entirely by its own members,  with very little external representation on its governing body, the Regent House though there is external representation on the Audit Committee, and there are four external members on the University's Council , who are the only external members of the Regent House. The Senate consists of all holders of the MA degree or higher degrees. It elects the Chancellor and the High Steward, and elected two members of the House of Commons until the Cambridge University constituency was abolished in Prior to , it was the university's governing body, fulfilling the functions that the Regent House fulfils today.
Although the University Council is the principal executive and policy-making body of the university, it must report and be accountable to the Regent House through a variety of checks and balances. It has the right of reporting to the university, and is obliged to advise the Regent House on matters of general concern to the university.
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It does both of these by causing notices to be published by authority in the Cambridge University Reporter , the official journal of the university. Since January , the membership of the Council has included two external members,  and the Regent House voted for an increase from two to four in the number of external members in March ,   and this was approved by Her Majesty the Queen in July The General Board of the Faculties is responsible for the academic and educational policy of the university,  and is accountable to the Council for its management of these affairs.
Faculty Boards are responsible to the General Board; other Boards and Syndicates are responsible either to the General Board if primarily for academic purposes or to the Council. In this way, the various arms of the university are kept under the supervision of the central administration, and thus the Regent House.
In —7, it was reported that approximately one third of Cambridge's income comes from UK government funding for teaching and research, with another third coming from other research grants. The university also receives a significant income in annual transfers from the Cambridge University Press. The University of Cambridge borrowed million pounds by issuing a year security bond in October Vice chancellor Leszek Borysiewicz hailed the success of the issue. Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities , the G5 , the League of European Research Universities , and the International Alliance of Research Universities , and forms part of the " golden triangle " of highly research intensive and elite southern English universities.
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Undergraduate applications to Cambridge must be made through UCAS in time for the early deadline, currently mid-October in the year before starting. Until the s candidates for all subjects were required to sit special entrance examinations,  since replaced by additional tests for some subjects, such as the Thinking Skills Assessment and the Cambridge Law Test. Most applicants who are called for interview will have been predicted at least three A-grade A-level qualifications relevant to their chosen undergraduate course, or the equivalent in other qualifications, such as getting at least 7,7,6 for higher-level subjects at IB.
Due to a very high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, the interview process is crucial for distinguishing between the most able candidates.
The interview is performed by College Fellows, who evaluate candidates on unexamined factors such as potential for original thinking and creativity. Strong applicants who are not successful at their chosen college may be placed in the Winter Pool , where they can be offered places by other colleges. This is in order to maintain consistency throughout the colleges, some of which receive more applicants than others. Graduate admission is first decided by the faculty or department relating to the applicant's subject.
When an offer is made, this effectively guarantees admission to a college—though not necessarily the applicant's preferred choice. Public debate in the United Kingdom continues over whether admissions processes at Oxford and Cambridge are entirely merit based and fair; whether enough students from state schools are encouraged to apply to Cambridge; and whether these students succeed in gaining entry.
Critics have argued that the lack of state school applicants with the required grades applying to Cambridge and Oxford has had a negative impact on Oxbridge 's reputation for many years, and the university has encouraged pupils from state schools to apply for Cambridge to help redress the imbalance. With the release of admissions figures, a article in The Guardian reported that ethnic minority candidates had lower success rates in individual subjects even when they had the same grades as white applicants.